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Profit Snapshot 2022 – 2023: How does your Farm Business Measure Up?

1 May 2024

Every year the Scottish Farm Business Survey produces national group average datasets from 400 Scottish farms for you to benchmark your business against to assess your farm business performance.

Take these steps for quick comparison:

  1. Visit the Whole Farm Benchmarks Tool 2022-2023
  2. Choose your farm type on the left from the drop down box.
  3. Dig out your latest set of farm accounts from your accountants and using the table below, compare your % net profit against Farm Business Income as a % of Output as these figures are comparable.
  4. Again, using the table below, compare your Whole Farm Gross Margin
  5. Are you in the top 25% of performing farms or closer to the average figure?

To compare your farm accounts data in further detail and see what goes into these figures to gain further insights explore the Whole Farm Benchmarks Tool 2022-2023 further.

Profit Snapshot 1: Crop year 2022 - 2023

Farm Business Income % of Output
Whole Farm Gross Margin as % of Output
Farm Type
Number of farms

Top 25%

AverageTop 25%Average
General Cropping
Specialist Cereals
Mixed farms

Livestock farms   
Farm Business Income % of Output 
Whole Farm Gross Margin as % of Output 
Top 25%
Average  Top 25%  Average  
Specialist Beef (LFA)  
13 71 63 
Mixed cattle & Sheep (LFA)  
71 65 
Specialist Sheep (LFA)  
12 77 71 

* data anomaly top 25% not available 

Output: From all farm enterprises, subsidies and diversification that uses farm resources.

Farm Business Income (FBI): Includes income from farming, support payments and farm diversification. FBI reflects actual incomes of farm businesses and is equivalent to net profit.

Whole Farm Gross Margin: Your total farm output minus your total variable costs.

Questions for Dairy and Livestock farmers

How does your business compare to farms similar to your own for some simple performance measures?

  1. Choose farm type from this page Whole Farm Benchmarks Tool 2022-2023
  2. Identify the performance measures from your farm productivity and accounts data
  3. Using the table below, how does your business compare?

Profit Snapshot 2: Crop year 2022 - 2023

Performance and Inputs 

Farm Type Performance measure 

Number of Farms



Top 25%  Average      
  Litres of milk / cow 7867 7863   
  Milk price: p / litre 45.2 44.1   
  Cost of concentrates as % of output 25% 29%   
Specialist Beef with sheep (LFA)   


Selected variable cost % Ewes to Ram 
  Top 25%  Average  Top 25%  Average  
  Cost of concentrates as % of output 10 14   
  Lambs disposed 140 139 
Mixed Cattle & Sheep (LFA)    


Selected variable cost % Ewes to Ram 
  Top 25%  Average  % Rough Grazing  
  Cost of concentrates as % of output 10 13 under 80% Over 80% 
  Lambs Disposed  134 92 
Specialist Sheep (LFA)    
Selected variable cost % Ewes to Ram 
  Top 25%  Average  Northern Southern 
  Cost of concentrates as % of output 10   
  Lambs disposed 79 117 

The farm types are based on the balance of enterprises.

  • Specialist Sheep
    Farms in the LFA with most production coming from sheep (mainly hard hill).
  • Specialist Beef (LFA)
    Farms in the LFA with most production coming from beef.
  • Cattle & Sheep (LFA)
    Farms in the LFA with production balanced between beef and sheep.
  • Specialist Cereals
    Farms where most production coming from cereals and oilseeds.
  • General Cropping
    Farms where a significant share of crop production includes intensive crops like potatoes.
  • Dairy
    Farms where most production comes from dairy cows.
  • Mixed
    Lowland farms where no enterprise dominates production

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